A man, to be greatly good, must imagine intensely and comprehensively; he must put himself in the place of another and many others; the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination.”
~Percy Bysshe Shelley,
By Jessica S. Manuel
Steven Pinker’s new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, was released last week and I just finished it. Steven Pinker is a cognitive psychologist and linguist and author of some really interesting works that deal with language and the brain. I like Pinker’s work because he constantly challenges my thinking, and he writes about subject matter like language and the brain, and the stuff of thought, which I find wildly interesting. I suspect this is part of why he resonates with others.
In his new book, he uses the same logic as his argument on the surprising decline of violence that he spoke about at a TED conference about a decade ago and which he elaborates in his book, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined.
In that TED presentation on violence, “Steven Pinker charts the decline of violence from Biblical times to the present, and argues that, though it may seem illogical and even obscene, given Iraq and Darfur, we are living in the most peaceful time in our species’ existence.” If you’re interested, you can watch it HERE.
In his new book, he reiterates this sentiment some to discuss how the poor population is actually much richer than poor people of the past, people are also living longer, healthier lives than they ever have before, all of which is thanks to reason, science, and humanism.
“Our greatest enemies are ultimately not our political adversaries but entropy, evolution (in the form of pestilence and the flaws in human nature), and most of all ignorance—a shortfall of knowledge of how best to solve our problems.”
About a month ago, Bill Gates and Steven Pinker discussed about how much Gates appreciates Pinker’s new book, and as a result, pre-sales for Enlightenment Now skyrocketed and the publishers pushed up the release. Like many others, this endorsement intrigued me, especially the way in which Bill Gates identifies the significance of the book as “positive thinking,” which is something that has helped him in business.
While I typically appreciate Pinker’s subject matter, and remain intrigued about how he makes his argument from a rhetorical perspective, this time around, I had a hard time willingly suspending my disbelief. As I read this book last week about how good we’ve got it in our contemporary moment, another mass shooting occurs in Florida.
An argument like Pinker’s is steeped in the ethos and logos of Aristotle’s rhetorical triad, but what about pathos? I tell my students how crucial it is to show empathy to your reader when composing their argument and I think that is missing here. Ironically, Pinker argues for the importance of empathy in his 2014 book, The Sense of Style. In this new book, he acknowledges mass shootings and police brutalities but explains them away with charts and statistics, none of which are very convincing rhetorical devices. Unlike Bill Gates, I didn’t feel empowered after reading this work.
Despite how important Pinker’s new work is, and how I think his argument challenges our thinking in the best ways, he delivers his argument to an utterly vulnerable society. The trauma that we’re experiencing as a nation cannot be explained away. No matter how convincingly he arranges his charts and statistics, I wonder if it will even matter if he doesn’t address the pain points of our generation. This dissonance of this work in our contemporary moment reminds writers how necessary it is to tap into the zeitgeist if we want our words to resonate with our audiences. As writers, thinkers, and teachers, we have a deep level of responsibility to imagine intensely and comprehensively the pains and pleasures of our readers and our students.
Without empathy, our words will not matter.